The Reason Behind Entomopathogenic Outbreaks
July 27, 2019
The world is becoming more dangerous as time passes by. Aside from the increasing number of criminal cases, disease outbreaks have been dramatically escalating this past few years. The term "outbreak" is often mistaken to the words "epidemic" and " pandemic." To understand Entomopathogenic outbreaks, we need to understand and differentiate the following.
The Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDC) defines an outbreak as the occurrence of more cases of a certain disease than what is expected in a specific area or group over a given period of time. An Entomopathogenic outbreak refers to the dramatic increase of occurrence of pest-borne diseases in an area or a specific group of people. The term epidemic, on the other hand, connotes a more serious occurrence. Epidemic infers a situation or a disease that can spread. Lastly, the term "Pandemic" connotes a global incidence, affecting a very large number of people.
The Biggest Infectious Disease Outbreaks
Here are the most common entomopathogenic viruses and bacteria:
1. Salmonella - This disease causes more than 1.2 million illnesses and 23,000 hospitalizations. Of all these cases, salmonella takes more than 450 lives in the United States every year. People infected with the salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, nausea, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after the infection. The symptoms could last up to 4 to 7 days, depending on several conditions. And most people can recover without hospitalization or treatment.
2. E. Coli - This is a bacterium found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animal. Although most of the strands of E.coli are not harmful, there are those that cause diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and other respiratory illnesses.
3. Dengue - This is a mosquito-borne disease that rapidly spreads in different regions. This disease is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti. To a lesser extent, it could be transmitted by the Ae. Albopictus. The most severe dengue outbreak was recorded during the 1950s and the Philippines and Thailand. As of today, severe dengue also affects Latin and American countries and has become a major cause for hospitalization and death among children and adults.
4. Malaria - This is a life-threatening disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted from being bitten by the female Anopheles mosquito. So far, the African region carries a higher share of cases of the global Malaria burden. In 2017, the WHO reports that Africa was home to 92% of malaria cases and 92% of malaria deaths. The symptoms of Malaria include the following: severe anemia, respiratory distress, metabolic acidosis, and multi-organ failure. According to the latest report in 2018, there were at least 219 million cases of malaria 2017 and 217 million cases in 2016.
5. Chikungunya - The symptoms of chikungunya include the following: fever and joint pain, headaches, joint swelling, and rashes. This disease is transmitted by an infected mosquito. Outbreaks of Chikungunya have been reported in Africa, Asia, Europe, The Indian Oceans and Pacific Oceans.
6. Yellow Fever - This is an acute viral hemorrhaging disease caused by mosquitoes. The symptoms of yellow fever include jaundice, muscle pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. The yellow fever virus is common in tropical areas and in some regions in Africa, Central America, and South America.
7. Zika - The symptoms of Zika fever include fever, rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle pain, joint pain, and headaches. The symptoms for this disease can last up to 2 to 7 seven days. When a pregnant woman is infected, chances are the infant is born with microcephaly and other congenital malformations, also known as congenital Zika syndrome. The first recorded outbreak of this disease was reported from the island of Yap in Micronesia in 2007. It was followed by a large outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013.
8. Lyme Disease - This is commonly transmitted by ticks. According to the CDC, there are more than 30,000 cases of Lyme disease every year. The symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and skin rashes. If left untreated, the symptoms could escalate to the joints, heart, and the nervous system.
9. Japanese Encephalitis - This is another disease from a mosquito bite. The symptoms include fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, and difficult thing. If left untreated, the symptoms could escalate to the swelling of the brain and comatose. According to experts, travelers are greatly at risk for acquiring Japanese encephalitis. Which is why the World Health Organization urges travelers to take the necessary precautions such as getting a vaccine before traveling to different places.
Reasons for Entomopathogenic Outbreaks
Travel & Trade
Historians believe that the rise of sailing during the 1300s helped in spreading deadly diseases around the world through rat populations carried on boats. During the state trade on the 16th and 17th century, it is believed that the Aedes aegypti was introduced to this world. This mosquito species is responsible for spreading viruses like the Zika virus, yellow fever, and dengue fever. According to Duane Gubler, a disease specialist and the former director of the division of vector-borne diseases at the CDC, humans now have modern transportation for moving animals, humans, and commodities. Along with it is the transportation of pathogens all around the world.
Scientists have found that when a package and is introduced to a new place, human beings are more susceptible to the disease since their immune systems have no experience of fighting the virus or bacteria. Doctors and Health Systems are also caught off guard since it will take time before they get to know the symptoms and the treatment for the illness. This is one factor that contributed to the recent Ebola epidemic in West Africa. The Clinicians had no clue about the disease since they never managed any cases of Ebola. The world health organization also reported that no studies were conducted to treat a diagnosed patient. No government entity ever witnessed the physical, social, and economic effects that the disease brings to society.
Experts regard urbanization as " and emerging humanitarian disaster." This is the tendency of human beings to densely populated urban environments. According to statistics, more than half of the Earth's human population live in cities. Hence, global health researchers regard the situation as an emerging disaster. Most cities are unplanned. Now, tens of millions of people live in crowded, unhygienic conditions. This creates the perfect breeding grounds for diseases.
For example, the recent issue on Zika virus outbreak in Brazil. One of the main reasons why health officials were caught off guard was because the cities of Brazil happen to be very hospitable to the virus. The mosquito that carries the Zika virus thrives among people. Scientists refer to the species as a highly domesticated mosquito that prefers to live with the human homes to lay eggs in artificial containers made by human beings such as tires, plastic cups, birdbaths, and many more.
When viruses and bacteria strike weakened Health Systems, they have a greater chance to thrive and kill people. The 2014 Ebola Epidemic is a good example. Americans who are infected by the Ebola virus survived because of immediate access to treatment. People in the United States have access to kidney dialysis, IV rehydration, antibiotics, and 24-hour hospital care. Unfortunately, the outbreak in West Africa took the lives of almost 11,000 people. They have poor access to good nutrition. Plus, their healthcare is not as good as that provided in the United States.
According to analysts, global warming is a huge factor to fuel more disease outbreaks. As of today, global temperature is 1.62 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the 20th-century average. In June 2015, The Lancet released a report emphasizing that the implications of climate change threaten to undermine the gains in development and global health acquired during the 20th century. Because of warmer temperatures, the Aedes aegypti mosquito can transmit Zika, dengue, and chikungunya easier. Furthermore, researchers conclude that the spread of Lyme disease, cholera, and bird flu is also affected by the rise in temperature. According to one of the detectives from the CDC, the spread of vector-borne diseases will continue to accelerate as our climate continues to get warmer.
Increased Exposure To Chemicals & Toxins
Humans have the never-ending need to discover, innovate, and improve. This means that scientists will never stop creating a stronger formula, a stronger medicine, even a stronger repellent against pests. However, this is one of the major reasons why outbreaks become more difficult to stop. Just like human beings, pests are resilient. They have the ability to adapt, adjust, and evolve with their environment. So, if scientists keep exposing pests to new and stronger products, their population grows stronger, immune to artificial and applied substances.
For these reasons, it is important to raise awareness about proper pest management programs. To protect families and households from the diseases brought by pests, each of us needs to take safe precautionary measures to avoid pest infestation.
The Need For Professional Help
Due to the growing cases of vector-borne diseases, it is best to take the necessary precautions to protect yourself and your family from getting any disease. Call for your local pest control service near Denver, NC. Lake Norman Pest Control has been protecting people and saving lives for more than 50 years. The company has high regard for the satisfaction and safety of people. For this reason, they do their best to eliminate and prevent the infestation of pests in households.
For an affordable yet effective way to manage and control pests at home, call for Lake Norman Pest Control. Prevention is always better than cure. There is nothing better than calling for the best pest guards in your area.