Integration Vector Management In Preventing Mosquito-Borne Diseases
August 21, 2019
Vector-borne diseases are getting more common as the days go by. These are infectious illnesses transmitted by the bite of infected insect species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, bugs, and flies. These arthropod vectors are cold-blooded. Thus, they are very sensitive to climatic factors.
Weather greatly influences the survival rate and reproduction rate of insects. Weather is a big factor in defining an insect species’ vectors’ habitat suitability, distribution, and abundance. It also affects the intensity and commonality of vector activity, especially biting and infestation rates throughout the year. Furthermore, climatic factors influence the development, spread, and reproduction of pathogens such as bacteria and viruses within vectors.
However, there are other factors that can affect the distribution, reproduction, and survival of vectors aside from climate. It includes land use, pesticide application, and people density. Vector-borne diseases are common along with overpopulated areas in the world. Urbanization and immigration are one of the main causes of disease epidemics in many places.
Here are some of the most common vector-borne diseases you need to get acquainted of.
West Nile Fever is one of the most lethal diseases caused by mosquitoes. It is caused by the West Nile virus from the family Flaviviridae which is a part of the Japanese encephalitis group.
In many European countries, the virus is isolated in mosquitoes, wild rodents, migrating birds, and ticks. Did you know that 80% of the cases of the West Nile disease are asymptomatic? For this reason, the rate of West Nile virus infections in human beings remains unknown. Only a few of the epidemics with probably tens or hundreds of West Nile fever cases have been documented in the past few years.
The next mosquito-borne disease is Dengue Fever. This disease is the most important arboviral human disease. Dengue is frequently introduced into Europe and the United States by travelers returning from their voyages into dengue-endemic countries especially in Asia and Africa. There are only a few local transmissions have been reported in these areas yet. Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne illness in the whole world. It affects more than 5 million people each year.
Recent studies have shown that the temperature in an area is a huge factor in dengue transmission in urban areas. In the year 2085, scientists have predicted that climate change projections will result in dengue transmission to shift on the higher latitudinal and altitudinal range. Earth is on the verge of intolerable heat. Because of this, the number of dengue casualties in the Western Seaboard may rise along with it.
Dengue can be very lethal to children and the elderly. The signs of dengue are commonly mistaken as the signs of the flu. For this reason, parents do not pay much attention to other details such as nosebleed and rashes. Other families rely on pain relievers and analgesics to relieve the symptoms. Little do they know that the lives of their loved ones are in danger.
Dengue kills many people silently. In a few weeks or months after the infection of the dengue virus, the platelets of humans decline dramatically which causes hemorrhagic reactions, and eventually death. This is one of the reasons why people should be more aware of vector-borne diseases.
One of the most lethal mosquito-borne illness is the Chikungunya fever which is caused by a virus of the genus Alphavirus. This is transmitted to human beings through the bite of infected mosquitoes such as Aaegypti, and A albopictus.
In August 2007, there was a confirmed outbreak of Chikungunya fever in North-eastern Italy. This was the first Chikungunya outbreak on the European continent. Vector surveillance systems in the area identified large numbers of Aalbopictus mosquitoes breeding in stagnant water. Many could also be found in mosquito traps. According to experts, the outbreak of this disease in Italy was not an accidental event. Their studies conclude that there are factors that contributed to the dramatic rise of reproduction, infestation, and activity of the A albopictus mosquito in Europe. These factors include mild winters, annual rainfall exceeding 50 cm, and mean summer temperatures exceeding 20°C, all because of climate change.
Another mosquito-borne disease is Malaria. This is caused by one of four species of the Plasmodium parasite spread by the female Anopheles mosquitoes. A lot of people think that Malaria is a virus or a bacteria that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Actually, it is a parasite that latches on to mosquitoes and transfers to human beings as hosts when they get the chance.
Historically, this disease used to be endemic in Europe and Scandinavia. But over the years, it was eliminated through several changes and developments in society. In 1975, they observed the decline of Malaria victims in Europe because of socio-economic changes. With the facts gathered by experts, they concluded that climate change plays an insignificant role in the spread and transmission of Malaria.
Epidemiological studies note that the potential for malaria transmission is connected to meteorological conditions such as an area’s rate of precipitation. Therefore, Malaria is common in areas where there is a lot more rain.
Integrated Vector Management (IVM)
We are currently in a state where climate change, urbanization, and constant migration is amuck. For this reason, we need to be more aware of our surroundings to prevent mosquito-borne diseases to affect us and our family.
There are many factors that contribute to mosquitoes’ reproduction, activity, and survival. It includes the following: Poorly installed irrigation structures and water systems, inadequate housing, poor waste disposal, inadequate water storage, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity.
Ever since the issue on climate change has risen, many people, particularly the World Health Organization has been advocating for responsible pest management in households, schools, and other places to prevent mosquito-borne diseases. One of the most popular strategies for pest management is the Integrated Vector Management or IVM.
These IVM techniques are designed to achieve disease control benefit in the most cost-effective manner. It also aims to minimize the negative impacts of pest management activities on ecosystems. IVM advocates the use of harmful pesticides to treat pests and manage pest infestations among households and with very good reason at that.
There are many good and helpful organisms in our environment. We may not notice them or see them but they contribute to the stability of our ecosystem. Pesticides and insecticides are not focused on eliminating only the pests in the environment. Using these chemicals will do more harm than good to the environment because it kills these helpful organisms.
IVM advocates for a more natural means of pest elimination and management. IVM reiterates the importance of first-hand understanding of the insect ecology and local patterns of disease transmission of vectors. In turn, it helps people to wisely choose the appropriate vector control tools, from the range of options available.
These methods include environmental management strategies that reduce if not eliminate vector breeding grounds through improved designs for developmental projects in water resources, irrigation systems, and waste disposal. The techniques that IVM proposes also include the conscientious use of biological controls to avoid damage to the ecosystem.
Finally, when all other measures of pest control remain ineffective or not cost-effective, Integrated Vector Management considers the use of chemical methods of vector control by judiciously choosing the best contents. IVM makes sure that residual sprays, space spraying, and the use of chemical larvicides and adulticides will be effective and at the same time safe for all surrounding ecosystems around it.
IVM is a multi-sectorial approach to vector-borne disease control. It does not only include the reduction or elimination of pests. It also focuses on assessments towards various infrastructure developments in agriculture, irrigations, water supplies, housing projects and many more.
The Need To Call For Professional Help
Some people do not have the luxury of time and resources to create their own methods of Integrated Vector Management. For this reason, one of the most practical ways to prevent vector-borne diseases is by calling for a competent pest control expert.
We have discussed that pesticides can greatly damage the ecosystem. If you are looking for a safe way to eliminate pests, call for an exterminator that uses environmental-friendly tools for pest management. This is essential to maintain biodiversity at the same time get rid of unwanted and dangerous pests in your surroundings.
In North Carolina, vector-borne diseases are also prevalent. People with weak immune systems are greatly at risk. If you are worried that your family members could get sick from different pests, call for your local pest management service provider near Denver.
Lake Norman Pest Control offers the best pest management services in North Carolina. Equipped with the latest and safest ways of pest control, this company ensures elimination and prevention of pests in your surroundings.
The company offers affordable plans for pest management. If you got pests but you don’t have time to deal with it, even if you’re on a tight budget, Lake Norman Pest Control is at your service. Have a pest-free environment with just one call.